guide to the proficiency level specifications - Lake County Schools
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titulaire, Faculté de philosophie, Université Laval ... Les
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culture qu'on doit mettre d'abord en examen
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Florida Hard-to-Measure Content Area:
Test Item Specifications
Novice-Low/Novice-Mid to Advanced-Low
Florida Department of EducationHYPERLINK "http://www.fldoe.org"www.fldoe.org
Origin and Purpose of the Specifications 5
Table 1: Proficere Leadership and Specifications Developers 6
Scope of This Document 8
Overall Considerations 8
Item Contexts (Scenarios) 9
Construct Assessed: Language Proficiency 9
2011 Florida World Languages Next Generation Sunshine State Standards 10
Three Modes of Communication Described by ACTFL 10
Proficiency Levels 13
Benchmark Levels Described by CASLS 14
Table 2: Correspondences to Year of Study 15
Key Committee Decisions 16
Proficiency Levels 16
American Sign Language (ASL) 16
Criteria for World Languages Item Bank and Test Platform (WL IBTP) Items 18
Item Style and Format 18
Criteria for Selecting Stimulus Materials 18
Item Response Types 19
Table 3: Item Response Types 19
Table 4: Types of Texts 20
Characteristics of Texts and Media 21
Content (See Appendix B) 21
Texts and Media Features 22
Reading Level 22
Degree of Challenge of WL IBTP Items 23
Item Difficulty 23
Cognitive Complexity 23
Categories of Complexity 24
Table 5: Cognitive Complexity Levels 25
Table 6: WL IBTP Percentaage of Points by Cognitive Complexity Level 26
Guidelines for Item Writers 27
Correct Response 27
Item Difficulty 27
Cognitive Complexity 27
Electronic Submission of Items 27
Guide to the Proficiency Level Specifications 28
Benchmark Classification Scheme 28
Definitions of Benchmark Specifications 28
Recommended Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Level 29
Text/Stimulus Attributes 29
Distractor Attributes 29
Item Types 29
Sample Items 29
Review Procedures for World Languages IBTP 30
Review of Texts and Media 30
Review for Potential Bias and Sensitivity Issues 30
Review of Assessment Items 30
Review for Universal Design 30
Test Item Specifications for WL-NGSSS Benchmarks 32
Standard 1: Interpretive Listening 33
Standard 2: Interpretive Reading 84
Standard 3: Interpersonal Communication 110
Standard 4: Presentational Speaking 215
Standard 5: Presentational Writing 257
Standard 6: Culture 316
Standard 7: Connections 342
Standard 8: Comparisons 358
Standard 9: Communities 385
Appendix A: Glossary of Terms 400
Appendix B: Internationally Accepted Topics Lists for Proficiency Levels 404
Appendix C: Guide to the Proficiency Level Descriptors 405
Appendix D: Checklist for Reviewing Test Items 406
Origin and Purpose of the SpecificationsFrom the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, a Race to the Top fund was provided for 11 states and the District of Columbia for the purpose of engaging in Race to the Top reform grants that are grounded in comprehensive reform. In September 2010, the U.S. Department of Education announced that Florida was a winner of the federal Race to the Top Phase 2 competition. An important component of Floridas winning application focused on the Standards and Assessments assurance area that [adopts] rigorous standards and assessments that prepare students for success in college and the workplace as well as [builds] data systems that measure student success and inform teachers and principals how they can improve their practices (Race to the Top, Florida Report, Year 1: School Year 2010-2011, p.2).
As an awardee of the Race to the Top reform grants, Florida, through its Office of Race to the Top Assessments, began to manage seven projects awarded to Local Education Agencies for the purpose of developing high-quality assessments for hard-to-measure content areas. The Florida Department of Education (FDOE) sought and included recommendations from educators across the state, including the Florida Organization of Instructional Leaders (FOIL) and a State Advisory Committee on District-Developed Student Assessments for Instructional Effectiveness (DDSAIE), comprised of parents, teachers, and district-level administrators, to determine the appropriate scope of work for assessment development for the hard-to-measure content areas. Provided these recommendations, teacher assignment and student enrollment data were analyzed to determine the courses that reach the greatest number of students and teachers in the hard-to-measure content areas. As a result of the analysis, World Languages was identified as a content area with courses having the greatest need for assessment development.
To develop high-quality assessments for the hard-to-measure content area of World Languages (WL), Duval County Public Schools was awarded the WL Race to the Top grant identified henceforth as Project Proficere. Proficere engaged Florida teachers to develop high-quality assessments for the following five language areas: American Sign Language, French, German, Italian, and Latin. As such, the assessment items will become accessible to Florida public school districts and teachers through the States electronic Interim Assessment Item Bank and Test Platform (IBTP). When the IBTP is fully operational, educators will have the ability to search the extensive bank of test items that have been vetted by Florida teachers, to export items, and to generate customized assessments to meet district and classroom needs. Additionally, a pool of practice items will be made available to students and parents, which independent schools may access as well.
Via the Project Proficere website ( HYPERLINK "http://www.duvalschools.org/reseval/proficere/" http://www.duvalschools.org/reseval/proficere/), the Project invited teachers from Floridas 67 districts to submit applications for participation. Furthermore, Proficere developed partnerships with Lake, Polk, and Seminole Counties as well as the following universities and associations: the University of South Florida (College of Education, David C. Anchin Center), the University of North Florida (World Languages, College of Arts and Sciences), the Florida Foreign Languages Association (FFLA), and the Foreign Languages Association for Managers in Education (FLAME). These partners help provide expertise throughout the process of developing the Specifications.
In October of 2011 Proficere was launched at conferences for FFLA and FLAME. Through Proficeres website, the Project recruited a geographically diverse group of teachers from across the State to work alongside Duval teachers who applied for participation as Specifications developers. Subsequent to the application process, 25 teachers were selected to participate in Phase One of the Project. These Original 25 participants comprised five distinct linguistic groups, with each group consisting of five teachers who possessed distinguished WL expertise and/or participated actively in their WL associations. Phase One leadership and teacher-participants are listed in the table below.
Table 1Proficere Leadership and Specifications Developers
Phase OnePrimary Leadership Director of Project Proficere: Melanie Bolt, Ph. D.
Executive Director of Instructional Research and Accountability: Timothy Ballentine
Supervisor of World Languages: Joanne Davis, Ph. D.
Specialist for the Deaf/HH ProgramBrenda N. Dale, M.Ed.
Supervisor of Test Development: Gwyn Seltzer
FDOE Proficere Liaison: Annamarie Cairo-Tijerino, M.Ed. Duval County
Leon CountyTeachers of American Sign LanguageJennifer AllinsonDuval County*Craig LeavittDuval CountyFFLA 2011 Associated Leagues Teacher of the Year, Florida American Sign Language Teacher Association (FASLTA)Shawn OlmsteadSeminole County*Lesley SilvestrisDuval CountyDimarly SuarezClay CountyTeachers of FrenchPresident of the American Association of Teachers of French (AATF)*Lauren Doyle-McCombs, Ph. D. Duval County*Louise Hunley, Ph. D. Duval County*Grace Kellermeier, Ed. D. Volusia CountyElisabeth SundstromDuval CountyCorinne TorresSeminole CountyTeachers of GermanFFLA 2011 Associated Leagues Teacher of the Year, Florida Association of Teachers of German (FATG)Kevin BrowneBrevard CountyDawn HallBroward County*Sara HoeflerOrange CountyAnthony Krupp, Ph. D. Miami-Dade CountyTeachers of ItalianManuela BiancottiBroward County*Elizabeth GentryDuval CountyKatherine Grazier-PescanteHillsboroughSheryl MartinoCollier CountyMarzia VitaliSeminole CountyTeachers of LatinAlan BlessingPinellas CountyTimothy KandelBroward County*Janice LeeDuval CountyAurelia OglesLake CountyJeffrey SatrianoLeon County*An asterisk indicates Phase One participants who served as members of an Expert Panel to review and edit the Specifications.
Scope of This DocumentThe Specifications document, grounded in the 2011 World Languages Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (WL-NGSSS), provides benchmark and proficiency level guidelines for the development of all WL assessment items contained in the World Languages Item Bank.The Overall Considerations section of this document explains the guidelines that should be followed during the item development process. The Criteria for the WL IBTP Items section describes the item style and format as well as the criteria for selecting stimulus materials. The Degree of Challenge of WL IBTP Items section of this document discusses the concepts of item difficulty and cognitive complexity levels. The Guidelines for Item Writers and the Guide to the Proficiency Level Specifications sections provide an overview for selection and development of all item types within the scope of the IBTP and present a benchmark classification scheme, respectively. The Benchmark Specifications section describes specific information pertaining to each WL benchmark in the WL-NGSSS. The following information is contained within this section: benchmark clarification statements, content limits, stimulus attributes, and a sample item for each benchmark grouping (FCAT 2.0 Science Specifications, Grade 8, p. 1). Overall ConsiderationsThis section through page 30 of the Specifications describes the guidelines that apply to all assessment items developed for the World Languages IBTP and draws on the Overall Considerations of the FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications, Grades 9-10 (p. 2) and the FCAT 2.0 Science Test Item Specifications, Grade 8 (p. 2-3).
Overall considerations are broad item-development guidelines that should be addressed during the development of assessment items. Other sections of this document relate more specifically to the particular aspects of item development (content limits, for example). Each item should be written to measure primarily one benchmark; however, other benchmarks may also be reflected in the item content.
Items should be proficiency-level appropriate in terms of item difficulty, cognitive demands, and reading level. The Individual Benchmark Specifications and the Item Writer Glossary provide information to the writer about which topics are appropriate for use in test items at each Proficiency Level.
Assessment items should be written to the cognitive level of the benchmark unless otherwise noted in the Individual Specifications section. For example, if a benchmark states that the student will interpret a text, the assessment item should assess an interpretation.
At a given proficiency level, the items should exhibit a varied range of difficulty.
The reading level of items should be on or below the proficiency level for which a given item is written.
Items should assess the application of a concept rather than the memorization of a fact unless noted otherwise in the Individual Benchmark Specifications.
Items will not require the student to define terms.
Some items may be written to include stimulus material that is associated with several items in addition to the item stem.
Items may require the student to apply skills described in the prior knowledge benchmarks from lower proficiency levels; however, that knowledge should not be assessed in isolation.
Each item should be written clearly and unambiguously to elicit the desired response.
Items should not disadvantage or exhibit disrespect to anyone in regard to age, gender, race, ethnicity, language, religion, socioeconomic status, disability, occupation, or geographic region.
Item Contexts (Scenarios)The context in which an item is presented is called the item context or scenario. Assessment items should be placed in a context.
Each item context should be designed to interest students at a given proficiency level. Scenarios should be appropriate for students in terms of proficiency-level experience, difficulty, and cognitive development.
The context should relate to the question asked and should lead the student cognitively to the question. Efforts should be made to keep assessment items as concise as possible without losing cognitive flow or missing the main idea or concept.
Scenarios in items related to a proficiency level that generally corresponds to an elementary school students WL study should be limited to those familiar to an elementary school student rather than global situations. Scenarios in items related to a proficiency level that generally corresponds to a junior high/middle school students WL study should be limited to those familiar to a junior high/middle school student rather than global situations. However, for a proficiency level that typically corresponds to a high school students Year 3 of WL study may include topics and vocabulary indicative of global situations.
Item contexts should utilize a variety of semi-authentic media that are interesting and appealing to students at the proficiency level for which the media are intended. Graphics, audio, and video material with controversial or offensive content should not be included in the items. Confusing or emotionally charged subjects also should be avoided. References to trademarks, commercial products, and brand names should not be included in the items.
Item content should be timely but unlikely to become dated.
Construct Assessed: Language ProficiencyThe framing of the WL-NGSSS was based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) which provides a basis for the mutual recognition of language qualifications and prepares students for an interdependent world (World Languages Course Descriptions: an Update, January 19, 2012). The WL-NGSSS were approved by the State Board of Education in December of 2010 and are presented in Appendix A and at HYPERLINK "http://www.fldoe.org/aala/pdf/2011WorldLanguagesStandards.pdf"http://www.fldoe.org/aala/pdf/2011WorldLanguagesStandards.pdf. The approval of the WL-NGSSS underscores the following shift: No longer do the Standards focus on grade-level performance, but emphasize language proficiency. For example, a Novice Low Proficiency Level, whether taught to a first grader or a tenth grader would contain the same standard content (World Languages Course Descriptions: an Update, January 19, 2012).The Center for Applied Second Language Studies (CASLS) defines language proficiency as a measure of a persons ability to use a given language to convey and comprehend meaningful content in realistic situations (University of Oregon, p. 6). The WL-NGSSS provide a basis for assessing students proficiency on World Language tasks in five Modes of Communication and in four Intercultural Standards, which taken together provide evidence for students linguistic capacity.
2011 Florida World Languages Next Generation Sunshine State StandardsWithin the WL-NGSSS, students linguistic proficiency is evidenced through two overarching goal areas that include that are as follows:
Modes of Communication and
These goal areas are comprised by nine Standards as follows:
Modes of Communication
Standard 1: Interpretive Listening
Standard 2: Interpretive Reading
Standard 3: Interpersonal Communication
Standard 4: Presentational Speaking
Standard 5: Presentational Writing
Standard 6: Culture
Standard 7: Connections
Standard 8: Comparisons
Standard 9: Communities
The first goal area of language proficiency addresses communication, which can be described in different ways; however, the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL), Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century, provides a description of communication in terms of three modes.
Three Modes of Communication Described by ACTFL
Interpretive ModeThe interpretive mode relates to the understanding of spoken or written language, such as listening to a broadcast or reading a magazine. It involves having a culturally appropriate understanding of the meaning of oral or written messages sent through print and visual images. In this mode, the original author is not present to clarify misunderstandings. Necessary to achieving successful communication in this mode are the receptive language abilities of listening and reading and the ability to use visual images to assist in comprehension (Framework for the 2004 Foreign Language National Assessment of Educational Progress, p. 19).
Presentational Mode The presentational mode involves spoken or written communication, such as giving a speech or writing a story. It involves producing spoken or written messages for an audience with whom there is no immediate personal contact. Thus, there is no possibility to clarify intended meanings when misunderstandings occur. Such messages need to reflect awareness of cultural differences in order to be presented in a manner that will enable appropriate interpretation by persons from a cultural background where the foreign language is spoken. Necessary to achieving successful communication in this mode are the productive language abilities of speaking and writing and the ability to use visual images (Framework for the 2004 Foreign Language National Assessment of Educational Progress, p. 20).
Interpersonal ModeThe interpersonal mode involves two-way, interactive communication, such as conversing face-to-face or exchanging e-mail messages. It is characterized by direct communication between individuals who are in personal contact, thus allowing the participants to clarify their meaning when misunderstandings occur. In this mode, participants in the interaction use both linguistic and non-linguistic feedback from others to ascertain the extent to which their message is being successfully communicated and can make adjustments and clarifications accordingly. Necessary to achieving successful communication in this mode are the productive language abilities of speaking and writing, the receptive abilities of listening and reading, and the ability to use and interpret nonverbal behavior, including body language in face-to-face interactions (Framework for the 2004 Foreign Language National Assessment of Educational Progress, p. 19).
While ACTFLs Standards for Foreign Language Learning characterizes communication in terms of three modes, the WL-NGSSS further delineates communication to include five Standards. These five Standards comprise the first goal area of language proficiency: Modes of Communication that is contained within the WL-NGSSS. The five Standards are presented below, underneath a corresponding ACTFL mode of communication:
Standard 1of WL-NGSSS Modes of Communication: Interpretive Listening The student will be able to understand and interpret information, concepts, and ideas orally from a variety of culturally authentic sources on a variety of topics in the target language.
Standard 2 of WL-NGSSS Modes of Communication: Interpretive ReadingThe student will be able to understand and interpret information, concepts, and ideas in writing from a variety of culturally authentic sources on a variety of topics in the target language.
Standard 3 of WL-NGSSS Modes of Communication: Presentational SpeakingThe student will be able to present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners on a variety of topics in a culturally appropriate context in the target language.
Standard 4 of WL-NGSSS Modes of Communication: Presentational WritingThe student will be able to present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of readers on a variety of topics in a culturally appropriate context in the target language.
Standard 5 of WL-NGSSS Modes of Communication: Interpersonal CommunicationThe student will be able to engage in conversations and exchange information, concepts, and ideas orally and in writing with a variety of speakers or readers on a variety of topics in a culturally appropriate context in the target language.
The second goal area of language proficiency in the WL-NGSSS is Intercultural Standards, which can be better understood in terms of four categories found within the Framework for the 2004 Foreign Language National Assessment of Educational Progress. These include the following:
CultureThe Culture goal relates to gaining knowledge and understanding of a different culture on its own terms. Culture is understood as the perspectives, practices, and products common to a society. The philosophical perspectives of a cultural groupthe meanings, attitudes, values, and ideas that form its worldvieware the basis from which practices and products are derived. Practices are the patterns of social interaction accepted by the society, such as its rules for greeting and leave-taking, how space and gestures are used in personal interactions, and how status is determined. Products may be tangible (such as books, paintings, or buildings) or intangible (such as laws or a system of education). Understanding interrelationships among perspectives, practices, and products of the culture(s) studied in the foreign language classroom provides important content and purpose for participating in communication in the foreign language (Framework for the 2004 Foreign Language National Assessment of Educational Progress).
ConnectionsThe Connections goal relates to using the foreign language to connect to other academic disciplines to acquire knowledge. This goal provides a clear purpose for communication in the foreign language, whether to reinforce and further ones knowledge of other academic disciplines or to acquire information and recognize distrinctive viewpoints available only through the foreign language and its cultures (Framework for the 2004 Foreign Language National Assessment of Educational Progress).
ComparisonsThe Comparisons goal relates to developing insight into the nature of language and culture through comparisons between the native language and culture and a foreign language and culture. Making comparisons provides a clear purpose for communication in the foreign language. (Framework for the 2004 Foreign Language National Assessment of Educational Progress).
CommunitiesThe Communities goal relates to participating in multilingual communities at home and around the world. This goal provides a context in which the foreign language is used purposefully for communication. Within the instructional setting, the context may extend beyond the school community through communication with speakers of the foreign language through e-mail or audiotapes, for example. Ideally, the context will involve using the language for personal enjoyment (Framework for the 2004 Foreign Language National Assessment of Educational Progress).
The second goal area of language proficiency in the WL-NGSSS is Intercultural Standards, which is comprised by the following four Standards:
Standard 1 of WL-NGSSS Intercultural Standards: CultureThe student will be able to use the target language to gain knowledge and demonstrate understanding of the relationship among practices, products, and perspectives of cultures other than his/her own.
Standard 2 of WL-NGSSS Intercultural Standards:
ConnectionsThe student will be able to acquire, reinforce, and further his/her knowledge of other disciplines through the target language.
Standard 3 of WL-NGSSS Intercultural Standards: ComparisonsThe student will be able to develop insight into the nature of the target language and culture by comparing his/her own language(s) and cultures to others.
Standard 4 of WL-NGSSS Intercultural Standards:
CommunitiesThe student will be able to use the target language both within and beyond the school setting to investigate and improve his/her world beyond his/her immediate surroundings for personal growth and enrichment.
Proficiency LevelsThe WL-NGSSS provide a basis for assessing students proficiency on World Languages tasks in the five Modes of Communication and in the four Intercultural Standards, which provide evidence for students language proficiency. The Proficiency Levels listed within the WL-NGSSS are as follows:
Novice Low-Novice Mid
It should be noted that the Proficiency Levels contained in the WL-NGSSS do not directly correspond to 2012 ACTFL Levels. Therefore, as general reference points of comparison it may be useful for WL item writers to consider the Center for Applied Second Language Studies (CASLS) four Benchmark Levels, which include Beginning, Transitioning, Expanding, and Refining.
Benchmark Levels Described by CASLS
Beginning Proficiency Beginning proficiency is characterized by a reliance on a limited repertoire of learned phrases and basic vocabulary. A student at this level is able to recognize the purpose of basic texts, such as menus, tickets, short notes, etc. by understanding common words and expressions. The student is able to understand a core of simple, formulaic utterances in both reading and listening. In writing and speaking, the student is able to communicate basic information through lists of words and some memorized patterns (Computerized Assessment of Proficiency Test Specifications,CASLS).
Transitioning ProficiencyTransitioning proficiency is characterized by the ability to use language knowledge to understand information in everyday materials. The learner is transitioning from memorized words and phrases to original production, albeit still rather limited. In reading, students at this level should be able to understand the main ideas and explicit details in everyday materials such as short letters, menus, and advertisements. In listening, students at this level can follow short conversations and announcements on common topics and answer questions about the main idea and explicitly stated details. In speaking and writing, students are not limited to formulaic utterances, but can express factual information through the manipulation of grammatical structures (Computerized Assessment of Proficiency Test Specifications,CASLS).
Expanding ProficiencyExpanding proficiency is characterized by the ability to understand and use language for straightforward informational purposes. At this level, students can understand the content of most factual, non-specialized written or spoken texts intended for a general audience, such as newspaper articles, television programs, and the like. In writing and speaking, students have sufficient control over language to successfully express a wide range of relationships (e.g., temporal, sequential, cause and effect, etc.) (Computerized Assessment of Proficiency Test Specifications, CASLS).
Refining ProficiencyRefining proficiency is characterized by the ability to understand and use language that serves a rhetorical purpose and involves reading or listening between the lines. Students at this level can follow spoken and written opinions and arguments, such as those found in newspaper editorials. The students have sufficient mastery of the language to shape their production, both written and spoken, for particular audiences and purposes and to clearly defend or justify a particular point of view (Computerized Assessment of Proficiency Test Specifications, CASLS).
In general, the Year of Study, the WL-NGSSS Proficiency Levels, and the CASLS Benchmark Levels provide flexible correspondences that are displayed in the table on the following page.
Table 2Correspondences to Year of Study
Year of StudyStandards Proficiency LevelCASLS Benchmark Level1Novice Low/Mid-Novice HighBeginning2Intermediate Low-Intermediate MidBeginning/Transitioning3Intermediate High-Advanced LowTransitioning4Advanced Low-Advanced MidTransitioning5Advanced HighTransitioning/Expanding6SuperiorExpanding For the purpose of drafting the Specifications document, Project Proficere teachers deliberated about what course content, or topics, should fall within each Proficiency Level. The teachers considered their classroom expertise, the Year of Study, the CASLS Benchmark Levels as well as the World Languages Course Descriptions set forth for American Sign Language, French, German, Latin, and Italian ( HYPERLINK "http://www.fldoe.org/aala/pdf/wlcdudjan.pdf" http://www.fldoe.org/aala/pdf/wlcdudjan.pdf).Furthermore, Proficere teachers reflected on a January 19, 2012 presentation by the FDOE Bureau of Student Achievement through Language Acquisition, indicating that the course descriptions reflect a much higher level of rigor than previous versions (World Languages Course Descriptions: an Update). The Bureau further explained that by teachers knowing the development process and how national and international guidelines were utilized, teachers may better understand that the new course descriptions will guide them on what students should learn while retaining teachers flexibility in how they choose to teach.
Key Committee DecisionsWorld Languages Specifications developers made the following key decisions:
While the Proficiency Levels presented in the WL-NGSSS range from Novice Low/Mid to Superior, Proficere teachers wrote the Specifications for Novice Low/Mid through Advanced Low Levels exclusively. Teachers based their decision on the rationale that Novice Low/Mid to Advanced Low Proficiency Levels are associated with the highest enrolled courses (on which the Office of Race to the Top Assessments focus).
Specifications writers also noted that the Advanced Mid to Superior Proficiency Levels are associated with IB, AICE, and AP courses for which rigorous assessments already exist that require high levels of languages proficiency.
American Sign Language (ASL)
To provide uniformity and guidance when writing scripts (gloss) for ASL items, item writers should refer to Master ASL by Jason Zinza. As supplemental guides, item writers should utilize Signing Naturally, Level 2 (Lentz, Smith, and Mikos, 1992) and Signing Naturally, Level 3 (Mikos, Smith, and Lentz, 2003). These texts provide the basis for all glossing in the item development process for ASL.
ASL item writers should consider the following clarifications pertainaing to the WL-NGSSS:Standard 1: Interpretive Listening
The student will be able to understand and interpret information, concepts, and ideas from culturally authentic conversations on a variety of topics in the target language.
Standard 2: Interpretive ReadingThe student will be able to understand and interpret information, concepts, and ideas from culturally authentic narrations from one individual on a variety of topics in the target language.
Standard 4: Presentational SpeakingIn ASLs formal mode, the student will present information to an audience. The student will be able to present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience in an impromptu manner on a variety of topics in a culturally appropriate context in the target language; this may or may not be recorded.
Sample test question: Look at this picture. You have five minutes to prepare a formal composition in ASL telling a story about this picture, including role shifting, blending, and other ASL narration techniques. (The student is signing to a live audience.)
Standard 5: Presentational WritingThe student will be able to present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience on a variety of topics in a culturally appropriate context in the target language when provided time to prepare. The recording of information presented in ASL's formal mode is modified to reflect recording parameters. Presentational writing in ASL can be differentiated from speaking in the sense that the signer must be fully aware of recording parameters that influence one's signing, such as a reduced use of space, finger-spelling placement, and the like.
Sample test question: You are meeting for the first time a Deaf person who has Usher's Syndrome, with the typical tunnel vision limitation. Prepare a self-introduction that takes into consideration a limited sign space. (The student is recorded while signing to an audience [in a culturally appropriate context]).
CRITERIA FOR WL IBTP ITEMS
Item Style and Format This section presents stylistic guidelines and formatting directions that item writers should follow while developing items for the WL IBTP.
Assessment items should be clear and concise and should use topics and sentence structure appropriate for the assessed proficiency level. Item writers should refer to the resources provided during item writer training and to the Glossary in Appendix A to determine whether the language used in the test item is proficiency-level appropriate.
Topics should be proficiency-level appropriate. Item writers should refer to Appendix B, the Internationally Accepted Topics Lists for Proficiency Levels, and to Appendix C, the Guide to the Proficiency Level Descriptors. Assessment items should have only one correct answer. The words most likely or best should only be used when appropriate to the question.
The final sentence of all test item stems must be expressed as a question.
Assessment items utilizing art/images should be to scale whenever possible. If not possible, a not-to-scale text box should be included at the bottom left of the art/image.
Media in test items should be clearly labeled and contain all necessary information.
Test items should not use the word not (e.g., Which of the following is NOT an example of
Masculine pronouns should NOT be used to refer to both genders. Name(s) should be used whenever possible to avoid gender-specific pronouns (e.g., instead of The student will make changes so that he
use John and Maria will make changes so that they
An equal balance of male and female names should be used, including names representing current student names and different ethnic groups appropriate for Florida.
Graphics referenced in a test item will not be presented within the item itself.
Criteria for Selecting Stimulus Materials World Languages items may contain any of the stimuli listed below.
Graphics should be of non-copyrighted art works in the public domain or teacher-produced and should represent a wide variety of graphic/art forms. Graphics may include text boxes and other labels, legends, keys, and captions. Graphics should also reflect multicultural diversity and avoid gender stereotyping. Graphics must be clear and easy to reproduce, and be semi-authentic whenever possible. Graphics that require the test-taker to have prior or specialized knowledge that is inconsistent with the WL-NGSSS should not be included.
Audio Segments Audio segments should be clear. The segment should begin at a static point and then provide clear audio from beginning to the end. The segment should last no longer than one minute.
Video SegmentsVideo segments should be clear and demonstrate the focus of the question without superfluous background material present. They should not contain more than two or three people engaged in the activity that is being illustrated. The segment should start at a static position and then show the action to be illustrated clearly from the start to the finish. The segment should last no longer than one minute.
Item Response Types
The items developed for the WL IBTP will be comprised by the six response types found in the table below.
Item Response Types
Item Response Types
Description of Item Response Type Media MCMultiple Choice: to include four response optionsIncludes four response options: A, B, C, and D Media may be included in the item stimulus ARAudio Response: not to exceed 60 seconds; to be proficiency-level appropriateRequires a microphone; the student speaks into a microphone to respondMedia may be included in the item stimulus and/or the item responseVRVideo Response: not to exceed 60 seconds; to be proficiency-level appropriate Requires a webcam; the students response is video-recorded Media may be included in the item stimulus and/or the item responseWRWritten Response: to be proficiency-level appropriateRanges from a minimum of a one-word response to an extended written responseMedia may be included in the item stimulus PTPortfolio Task: to be proficiency-level appropriateBest assessed in the classroom; rubrics are utilizedMedia may be included in the item responseTETechnology Enhanced: to be proficiency-level appropriate Includes hot spots and drop-and-drag capability using a mouse with the computer Media may be included in the item stimulus and/or the item responseThe purpose of the WL IBTP is to assess student proficiency on World Languages tasks in five Modes of Communication and in four Intercultural Standards. The item types listed above include two different materials: texts and media. Texts
Texts may include literary or informational selections. Literary texts provide insight, entertainment, or inspiration and include fiction and some types of nonfiction (e.g., biographies, speeches, essays, poetry, and drama). Literary texts should address a variety of themes appropriate for and interesting to students at the designated Proficiency Level. Teacher-composed or excerpts from literary texts must reflect qualities of good literature. Provided informational texts, language is used to solve problems, raise questions, provide information, and present new ideas about the subject matter. Another form of informational text includes functional reading materials (e.g., websites, how-to material) encountered in real-world situations. Informational texts must include a variety of proficiency-level appropriate information sources. Texts should represent different points of view, contexts, and cultures while including issues and problems that persist across time. The texts should have identifiable key topics and relevant supporting details. As students progress beyond the lower proficiency levels, they may read informational texts with increasing frequency in and outside of school. Therefore, the percentage of informational texts that students will encounter on the WL IBTP may increase as they move up through the proficiency levels.
The following table provides examples of literary and informational texts that may be represented on the WL IBTP.
Table 4Types of Texts
Types of Literary TextTypes of Informational TextFiction (May include Teacher-Constructed Texts)